The contemporary moment is marked by an unprecedented "faith" in the law (Comaroff 2009). The aim of this multidisciplinary project is to provide new and critical understandings of the dilemmas involved in both protecting and enforcing "religious freedom". What is all-too-often ignored in current invocations of this celebrated idea(l), is that in order to enforce laws guaranteeing religious freedom you must first have "religion" (Sullivan 2005). Yet defining "religion" is notoriously difficult (Asad 1993; Keane 2007). Drawing a line around what counts as "religion" and what does not is undoubtedly an exercise of power, one that fashions, regulates and positions subjects and citizens within the polity (Asad 2006). Herein lies a deep dilemma in efforts to legislate religious freedom.